Welcome to The Educating Parent Beverley Paine's archive of articles about homeschooling and unschooling written over a period of 30 plus years

HomeAboutBlogArticles Curriculum Resource DirectoryShopKids PagesFacebook


Download our FREE The Educating Parent Resource Directories today! Plus... more FREE resources!

Free download a quick guide to getting started with homeschooling and unschooling by Beverley Paine The Educating Parent in this excellent Resource Directory
Introduction to
Home Education

Download for FREE this huge collection of links to online Australian homeschool and unschool support groups in this special The Educating Parent Resource Directory by Beverley Paine
National and State
Support Groups

Join Beverley LIVE at the 2021 online Australian Homeschooling Summit, don't miss out on her workshops, What is my child learning and Inside Beverley's classroomJoin Beverley and friends
LIVE in February at the
2021 online Australian
Homeschooling Summit!

But you don't have to wait until then - grab this limited-time special offer for the best Aussie homeschooling help you can get! Get the recordings of ALL 78 workshops + 15 bonus sessions from the 2017, 2019, and 2020 Australian Homeschooling Summits.

Get instant lifetime access for only $49!

Looking for support, reassurance and information?
Join Beverley's The Educating Parents Homeschooling and Unschooling Facebook online group.


Geography Skills Checklist

by Beverley Paine, August 2007

This checklist was put together from a variety of sources over several years, including reference to curriculum guidelines from three Australian states. I always found it useful to adapt the Contents section of any geogrpahy text books as these proved invaluable for checking that we had covered topics and skills.

The following list is not in any particular order. It isn't intended to be used in a progressive or sequential fashion. Use it as a checklist for when you have covered a particular area - marking dates for for 'introduced', 'revised' and 'mastered' - or as a prompt for creating lesson plans or unit studies.

Map Skills

  • introduction to features of maps
    - compass direction
    - scale
    - legend, key
    - map references
    - contour
    - lakes, rivers, oceans, glaciers
    - mountain ranges and significant mountains
    - transport (road, rail, shipping lanes, plane routes)
    - land use
  • use maps to collect and compile geographic information
  • understand how to interpret information obtained from maps, aerial photographs, satellite produced images, and geographic information systems

Making Maps

  • using maps in different contexts
    - every day life
    - use in thematic studies
    - use topical issues
    - showing distributions and patterns
    - appreciating size and scale
    - identifying changes and development
    - specifying the role of the map
  • create maps to display various types of geographic information
  • using photographs and drawings: oblique, arial, ground level photographs; satellite photographs
  • line drawings
  • sketch and 'mud' maps
  • map making techniques

Introduction to Globe, Atlas, Street Directories

  • elements of the globe
    - latitude and longitude
    - time zones
    - continents
    - oceans, seas, straits, lakes, rivers, glaciers, icesheets, etc
    - equator
    - Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer
    - scale
    - countries, borders
  • introduction to atlas
    - using contents, index
    - symbols and legend
    - direction
    - scale
    - contours, etc
    - ocean maps, depths
    - moon maps, star charts
    - countries, borders, roads, railways
    - water bodies (oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, etc)
    - landforms
    - land use
    - charts (population, industry, etc)

Questioning Skills

  • ask where is it located?
  • ask why is it there?
  • ask what is significant about the locations?
  • ask how is location related to factors suc as people, place and environments?

Information and Research Skills

  • make and communicate observations about the physical and human characteristics of places
  • record observations in a variety of ways
  • locate and identify geographic information
  • use primary sources of information (interview, questionnaire, survey, etc)
  • use secondary sources of information (books, internet, media, etc)
    process information
  • use a variety of research methods and skills to locate relevant information
  • use statistics and other quantitative techniques to evaluate information
  • create maps to display geographic information
  • construct graphs, tables, and diagrams
  • interpret information presented on maps, and as graphs, tables, diagrams, etc
  • use photographs and other graphical information to identify information, trends and patterns between elements and relationships
  • use mathematical concepts and processes to analyse data
  • integrate various types of materials to organize and synthesise information
  • present information using oral and written reports
  • identify and define geographic problems
  • hypothesise and pose geographic questions, plan how to solve them, test and arrive at conclusions and make generalisations to solve geographic problems and issues from information sourced from primary and secondary sources


  • observe the physical and human characteristics of places on the basis of fieldwork
  • systematically collect information and data

Geography students need to be able to gather information from a range of primary and secondary sources as well as data obtained through personal field work.

Identify and solving problems synthesising geographical information is the ultimate aim of the study of geography. It includes the ability to select and design appropriate forms of maps, graphs, diagrams, tables, and charts to organize geographic information; and to be competent users of quantitative methods of analysis to interpret information.

A quick summary of Geography Outcomes:

Children should learn:

  • to apply mathematics to work in geography
    to ask geographical questions
  • to use geographical vocabulary
  • to collect and record evidence
    fieldwork skills
  • to analyse evidence and draw conclusions
    to use maps and plans
    to use information and communication technologies
  • to communicate in ways appropriate to the task and audience
  • to use secondary sources of information
  • to investigate the features of the natural environment
  • to investigate how humans use and adapt the natural environment
  • to investigate how environments change over time
  • to investigate patterns of migration and human settlement


Was this article helpful? Was it worth $1.00 to you? Your gift of $1 or more helps to keep this site operating offering encouragement and reassurance to families wanting better outcomes for their children.

Thank you for your gift contribution!

Beverley Paine with her children, and their home educated children, relaxing at home.

Together with the support of my family, my aim is to help parents educate their children in stress-free, nurturing environments. In addition to building and maintaing this website, I continue to create and manage local and national home educating networks, help to organise conferences and camps, as well as write for, edit and produce newsletters, resource directories and magazines. I am an active supporter of national, state, regional and local home education groups.

"You've been an inspiration to me, I love the way
you really listen to people."

"Whenever I read your writing I always come away
with increased confidence in my ability to provide and
share a wonderful learning journey with my family!"

"Your guidance, understanding, support and words of
wisdom changed our lives. We now offer support and
organise many homeschooling events for others."

"Thank you once again for your prompt and friendly service.
I am convinced that your books are going to add
quality and peace of mind to my journey of teaching my kids
at home! Just from studying your website, until almost
2am in the morning, I 've been encouraged!"

"Thank you for all your many,many reassuring words
over many, many years. You probably don't know exactly how
valuable you are to the Australian Home Education community.
I've been reading your stuff for maybe 8 years or more now.
And I'm very grateful."

Want to learn how to write your own education plans to suit
your unique children's individual learning needs?

Looking for quality curriculum and teaching tips ?

Over 1000 reassuring and informative articles to help
build your confidence as an Educating Parent

Join Home Education Australia group: one space to share information, resources links and

You are invited to join Home Education Australia!
One well-organised space to find and share information,
resources links and more to support all home educators
across Australia, including a directory of posts and threads , where you can source all your needs related to home education and find what others are seeking and finding within Australia.

Welcome to the World of Home Education
and Learning without School!

We began educating our children in 1985, when our eldest was five. In truth, we had helped them learn what they need to learn since they were born. I am a passionate advocate of allowing children to learn unhindered by unnecessary stress and competition, meeting developmental needs in ways that suit their individual learning styles and preferences. Ours was a homeschooling, unschooling and natural learning family! There are hundreds of articles on this site to help you build confidence as a home educating family. We hope that your home educating adventure is as satisfying as ours was! Beverley Paine

The information on this website is of a general nature only and is not intended as personal or professional advice. This site merges and incorporates 'Homeschool Australia' and 'Unschool Australia'.

The Educating Parent acknowledges the Traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Owners, the Custodians of Australia, and pay our respects to Elders past and present and extend that respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people viewing this website.

To see the full range of Beverley Paine's books on homeschooling, unschooling and natural learning visit Always Learning Books

Tap into Beverley's experience through her books

"Your books, your blogs helped me beyond words...
they helped me to find comfort in knowing it is ok to choose
exactly what is best for my family." Nisha

"Your books and information are mind blowing and already
I am feeling good about this new experience." Diane

Connect with Beverley and ask questions
through her online The Educating Parents Homeschooling and Unschooling Facebook support groups.

purchase Beverley's practical and common sense books on homeschooling and unschooling
"Your guidance, understanding, support & words of wisdom changed our lives." Leslie

"I feel specially inspired by Beverley's words and, the more I read her comments, the more inspired I feel, since my need for support, respect for different parenting styles, and information are fully met." Marijo

Online science lessons for primary school aged home educating children

Teach Maths in the way that children learn with MathsUSee by MathsAustralia

30% discount for purchases from ReadyEd Publications when you use the code 'homeschool' at  the checkout

Help your child to learn how to play music with our app and children's books to them started - I Learning Music and Fun in the Music Room

Stocking all of Beverley Paine's, the educating parent's, books!

Click here for music lessons for students with autism and other needs Spectrum Music Studio

music lessons tailored to your home educating students needs in Joondalup Perth WA the only homeschool reading development which combines neurosciencebased exercises with voice recognition technology, platypus power reading program Click here to go to Learning Enrichment Studio Fostering Students Academic Potential

Natural Learning
and Unschooling Pack

Each Pack contains a copy of the following:
Natural Learning
Natural Learning Answers
A5 or A4
Learning Naturally Diary
Learning Maths Naturally
A Sample Approved Natural Learning Program and Review

Only $29 or $33
Select A4 or A5 Diary

Home education is a legal alternative
to school education in Australia.
State and Territory governments are responsible
for regulating home education and have different
requirements, however home educating families
are able to develop curriculum and learning programs
to suit the individual needs of their children.

animated Australian flag

Without revenue from advertising
by educational suppliers and Google Ads
we could not continue to provide information
to home educators. Please support us by letting
our advertisers know that you found them on
The Educating Parent. Thanks!

Beverley's books are excellent for building confidence as a home educator says Tracey, homeschooling mum.

Support Centre
Contact Us | Join a Support Group | Beverley's Books | Resource Directory | Blog | Donate

About The Educating Parent
Beverley Paine | April Jermey and Always Learning Books | Advertise with us


What is Home Education Why Home Educate Getting Started & Registering Different Ways to Home Educate
Life as a Home Educator Resources & Support Teens and Beyond Curriculum and Teaching Tips
Unschooling & Natural Learning Travelling & Home Educating Other: just for fun, general, etc Children's Pages

animated smiling face Thank you for visiting!

Beverley Paine, The Educating Parent
The opinions and articles included on this website are not necessarily those of Beverley and Robin Paine,
nor do they endorse or recommend products listed in contributed articles, pages, or advertisements.
This website uses browsing cookies and conducts other means to collect user information in order to display contextual ads.
Text and images on this site © All Rights Reserved 1999-2021.